The following list of references is an incomplete set sources to which I often refer when teaching about Learning Disabilities. It should come as no surprise that I use the textbook by Hallahan, Lloyd, Kauffman, Weiss, and Martinez (2005; I usually offered students who bought the book new for a class a $2 refund of my royalties), but I referred students to few articles that I wrote. (If someone is interested in my writings about LD, please see my vita.)

Please do not take this as a definitive list of what I consider to be the most important publications about LD. It’s just a list of those to which I often refer during lectures, so I created the document so that students could look them up without having to record the full citation as I dictated it (or something close to it); they could simply go to this list for it.

Also, please note that the list grew over the years—that I taught the course and used this format for communication—I added new sources. However, this version is a bit dated, as I haven’t used it for since ~2005 (changes in teaching assignments; change in structure of the class).


American Psychological Association. (1994). Publication manual (4th. ed.). Washington, DC: Author.


Bateman, B. (1967). Three approaches to diagnosis and educational planning for children with learning disabilities. Academic Therapy Quarterly, 2, 215-222.

Bateman, B. (1992). Learning disabilities: The changing landscape. Journal of Learning Disabilities 25, 29-36

Bicklen, D., & Zollers, N. (1986). The focus of advocacy in the LD field. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 579-586.

Blachman, B. A. (1997). Early intervention and phonological awareness: A cautionary tale. In B. A. Blachman (Ed.), Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia (pp. 409-430). Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum.

Bos, C. S., & Vaughn, S. (1998). Samuel Kirk’s legacy to teaching reading: The past speaks to the present. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13, 22-28.

Bottge, B. A., & Hasselbring, T. S. (1993). A comparison of two approaches for teaching complex, authentic mathematics problems to adolescents in remedial math classes. Exceptional Children, 59, 556-566.

Bryan, T. H. (1986). Self-concept and attributions of the learning disabled. Learning Disabilities Focus, 1, 82-89.

Bryan, T., Bay, M., Lopez-Reyna, N., & Donahue, M. (1991). Characteristics of students with learning disabilities: A summary of the extant data base and its implications for educational programs. In J. W. Lloyd, N. N. Singh, & A. C. Repp (Eds.), The Regular education initiative: Alternative perspectives on concepts, issues, and models (pp. 113-131). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore.


Carlberg, C., & Kavale, K. A. (1980). The efficacy of special versus regular class placement for exceptional children: A meta-analysis. Journal of Special Education, 14, 296-309.

Carnine, D. W., & Kameenui, E. J. (1990). The general education initiative and children with special needs: A false dilemma in the face of true problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 141-144, 148.

Casto, G., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1986). The efficacy of early intervention programs: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 52, 417-424.

Cohen, S. A. (1971). Dyspedagogia as a cause of reading retardation: Definition and treatment. In B. Bateman (Ed.), Learning disorders (vol. 4, pp. 269-291). Seattle: Special Child.

Coles, G. (1978). The learning-disabilities test battery–empirical and social issues. Harvard Educational Review, 48, 313-340.

Cook, S. B., Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & Casto, G. C. (1986). Handicapped students as tutors. Journal of Special Education, 19, 483-492.

Cooper, H., & Hedges, L. V. (Eds.), (1994). The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.


DeFries, J. C., Fulker, D. W., & LaBuda, M. C. (1987). Evidence for a genetic aetiology in reading disability of twins. Nature, 329, 537-539.

De La Paz, S., Owen, B., Harris, K., & Graham, S. (2000). Riding Elvis’s motorcycle: Using self-regulated strategy development to PLAN and WRITE for a state writing exam. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15, 101-109.

Del Giorno, J. (1997). “Hey, I can write about this in my journal!” Teaching and Change, 4, 325-337.

Deno, S. L. (1997). Whether thou goest. In J. W. Lloyd, E. J. Kameenui, D. Chard (Eds.), Issues in educating students with disasbilities (pp. 77-99). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Dunn, R., Griggs, S. A., Olson, J., Beasley, M., & Gorman, B. S. (1995). A meta-analytic validation of the Dunn and Dunn model of learning-style preferences. Journal of Educational Research, 88, 353-362.



Forness, S. R., & Kavale, K. A. (1993). Strategies to improve basic learning and memory deficits in mental retardation: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 28, 99-110.

Forness, S. R., & Kavale, K. A. (1996). Treating social skill deficits in children with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of the research. Learning Disability Quarterly, 19, 2-13.

Forness, S. R., Kavale, K. A., Blum, I. M., & Lloyd, J. W. (1997). What works in special education and related services: Using meta-analysis to guide practice. Teaching Exceptional Children, 29(6), 4-9.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Burish, P. (2000). Peer-assisted learning strategies: An evidence-based practice to promote reading achievement. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15, 85-91.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 53, 199-208.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13, 204-219.


Gersten, R. (1998). Recent advances in instructional research for students with learning disabilities: An overview. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13, 162-170.

Gersten, R., & Chard, D. (1999). Number sense: Rethinking arithmetic instruction for students with mathematical disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 33, 18-28.

Glass, G. V. (1976). Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis. Educational Researcher, 5, 3-8.

Glass, G. V., McGaw, B., & Smith, M. L. (1978). Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Glass, G. V., & Smith, M. L. (1979). Meta-analysis of research on class size and achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 1, 2-16.

Goldman, S. R. (1989). Strategy instruction in mathematics. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 43-55.

Groteluschen, A. K., Borkowski, J. G., & Hale, C. (1990). Strategy instruction is often insufficient: Addressing the interdependency of executive and attributional processes. In T. E. Scruggs & B. Y. L. Wong (Eds.), Intervention research in learning disabilities (pp. 81-102). New York: Springer-Verlag.


Hallahan, D. P. (1992). Some thoughts on why the prevalence of learning disabilities has increased. Journal of Learning Disabilities 25, 523-5288.

Hallahan, D. P., Lloyd, J. W., Kauffman, J. M., Weiss, M. P, & Martinez, E. A. (2005). Learning disabilities: Foundations, characteristics, and effective teaching (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Hammill, D. D. (1990). On defining learning disabilities: An emerging consensus. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 74-84.

Hinshelwood, J. (1907). Four cases of congenital word-blindness occurring in the same family. British Medical Journal, 2, 74-84.

Hynd, G. W., & Semrud-Clikeman, M. (1989). Dyslexia and brain morphology. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 447-482

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Johnson, D. J. (1993). Relationships between oral and written language. School Psychology Review, 22, 595-609.


Kavale, K. A. (1981). Functions of the Illinois test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA): Are they trainable? Exceptional Children, 47, 496-510.

Kavale, K. A. (1982). The efficacy of stimulant drug treatment for hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 280-289.

Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1983). Hyperactivity and diet treatment: A meta-analysis of the Feingold hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 324-330.

Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1987). Substance over style: A quantitative synthesis assessing the efficacy of modality testing and teaching. Exceptional Children, 54, 228-234.

Kavale, K. A., Fuchs, D., & Scruggs, T. E. (1994). Setting the record straight on learning disability and low achievement: Implications for policymaking. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 9, 70-77

Kavale, K. A., Mathur, S. R., Forness, S. R., Rutherford, R. B., Jr., & Quinn, M. M. (1997). Effectiveness of social skills training for students with behavior disorders: A meta-analysis. In T. E. Scruggs & M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 11; pp. 1-26). Greenwich, CN: JAI.

Kavale, K. A., & Mattson, P. D. (1983). “One jumped off the balance beam”: Meta-analysis of perceptual-motor training. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 165-173.

Kavale, K. A., & Nye, C. (1984). The effectiveness of drug treatment for severe behavioral disorders: A meta-analysis. Behavioral Disorders, 9, 117-130.

Kelly, B., Gersten, R., & Carnine, D. W. (1990). Student error patterns as a function of curriculum design: Teaching fractions to remedial high school students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 23-29.

Keogh, B. K. (1987). A shared attribute model of learning disabilities. In S. Vaughn & C. S. Bos (Eds.), Research in learning disabilities: Issues and future directions (pp. 3-18). Boston, MA: College Hill.

Keogh, B. K. (1998-1999). Revisiting families of children with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9, 81-85.

Kirk, S. A. (1975). Behavioral diagnosis and remediation of learning disabilities. In S. A. Kirk & J. R. McCarthy (Eds.), Learning disabilities: Selected ACLD papers (pp. 7-10). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Knowlton, D. (1998). Is it ADHD, LD, depression or allergies? Considerations for appropriate diagnosis. Special Services in the Schools, 13, 85-93.

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Light, R. J., & Pillemer, D. B. (1984). Summing up: The science of reviewing research. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lloyd, J., Epstein, M. H., & Cullinan, D. (1981). Direct teaching for learning disabilities. In J. Gottlieb & S. S. Strichart (Eds.), Developmental theory and research in learning disabilities (pp. 278-309). Baltimore: University Park Press.

Lloyd, J. W., Forness, S. R., & Kavale, K. A. (1998). Some methods are more effective. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33(1), 195-200.

Lowenthal, B. (1998). Precursors of learning disabilities in the inclusive preschool. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9, 25-31.


Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1989). Constructing more meaningful relations: Mnemonic instruction for special populations. Educational Psychology Review, 1(2), 83-111.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T., Mohler, L., Beranek, M., Spencer, V., Boon, R. T., & Talbott, E. (2001). Can middle school students with serious reading difficulties help each other and learn anything? Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 18-27.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Shiah, S. (1991). Mathematics instruction for learning disabled students: A review of research. Learning Disability Research and Practice, 6, 89-98.

Mastropieri, M. A., Sweda, J., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). Putting mnemonic strategies to work in an inclusive classroom. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15, 69-74.

Mercer, C. D., King-Sears, P., & Mercer, A. R. (1990). Learning disabilities definitions and criteria used by state education departments. Learning Disability Quarterly, 13, 141-152.

Montague, M., Warger, C., & Morgan, T. H. (2000). Solve it! Strategy instruction to improve mathematical problem solving. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15, 110-116.

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Newcomer, P. l., & Barenbaum, W. M. (1991). The written composing ability of children with learning disabilities: A review of the literature from 1980-1990. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 578-593.



Parmer, R. S., Cawley, J. F., & Miller, J. H. (1994). Difference in mathematics performance between students with learning disabilities and students with mental retardation. Exceptional Children, 60, 549-563.

Poplin, M. S. (1988). The reductionist fallacy in learning disabilities: Replicating the past by reducing the present. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 389-400.


Rankin, J. L., & Phillips, S. (1995). Learning disabilities in the popular press. Teaching Exceptional Children, 27(3), 35-39.

Robinson, T. R., Brownell, M. T., Smith, S. W., & Miller, M. D. (1999). Cognitive-behavior modification of hyperactivity/impulsivity and aggression: A meta-analysis Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 195-203.

Rosenthal, R. (1978). Combining results of independent studies. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 185-193.

Rosenthal, R. (1984). Metanalytic procedures for social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

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Schmidt, M., Weinstein, T., Niemic, R., & Walberg, H. J. (1986). Computer-assisted instruction with exceptional children. Journal of Special Education, 19, 493-501.

Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., & Escobar, M. E. (1990). Prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264(8), 996- 1002.

Skiba, R., & Casey, A. (1985). Interventions for behavior disordered students: A quantitative review and methodological critique. Behavioral Disorders, 10, 239-252.

Snider, V. E. (1996). A primer on phonemic awareness: What it is, why it’s important, and how to teach it. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 443-455.

Snyder, L. S., & Downey, D. M. (1997). Developmental differences in the relationship between oral language deficits and reading. Topics in Language Disorders, 17(3), 27-40.

Stage, S. A., & Quiroz, D. R. (1997). A meta-analysis of interventions to decrease disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings. School Psychology Review, 26, 333-368.

Stanovich, K. E. (1994). Romance and reality. Reading Teacher, 47, 280-291.

Stein, M., Carnine, D., & Dixon, R. (1998). Direct Instruction: Integrating curriculum design and effective teaching practice. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33, 227-234.

Strauss, A. E. (1943). Diagnosis and education of the cripple-brained, deficient child. Journal of Exceptional Children, 9, 163-168.

Swanson, H. L. (2000). Issues facing the field of learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 23, 37-50.

Swanson, H. L., O’Shaughnessy, T. E., McMahon, C. M., Hoskyn, M., & Sachse-Lee, C. M. (1998). A selective synthesis of single subject design intervention research on students with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs & M. A. Mastropieri (Eds), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 12; pp. 79-126). Greenwich, CT: JAI.


Talbott, E., Lloyd, J. W., & Tankersley, M. (1994). Effects of reading comprehension interventions for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17, 223-232.

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Vaughn, S., & Elbaum, B. (1999). The self-concept and friendships of students with learning disabilities: A developmental perspective. In R. Gallimore, L. P. Bernheimer, D. L. MacMillan, D. L. Speece, & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Developmental perspectives on children with high-incidence disabilities (pp. 81-107). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Vaughn, S. L., Gersten, R., Chard, D. (2000). The underlying message in LD intervention research: Findings from research syntheses. Exceptional Children, 67, 99-114.

Vaughn, S., McIntosh, R., & Spencer-Rowe, J. (1991). Peer rejection is a stubborn thing: Increasing peer acceptance of rejected students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 6, 83-88.


Waggoner, K., & Wilgosh, L. (1990). Concerns of families of children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 97-98, 113.

Weisz, J. R., Weiss, B., Alicke, M. D., & Klotz, M. L. (1987). Effectivness of psychotherapy with children and adolescents: A meta-analysis for clinicians. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 542-549.

White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11, 364-374.

Worrall, R. S. (1990). Detecting health fraud in the field of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 207-212.


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